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PMBOK® Guide 7, Underneath the Surface

This is a free (i.e., “freedom-respecting” and “free of charge”) book with a CC-BY license. You can read or modify it for personal or commercial purposes without asking for permission.

I hope you’ll enjoy it.

Nader K. Rad, 2023

About the Author

I started working with projects about 25 years ago: first, as a project planner in construction projects, and then I moved to large process-plant projects. In parallel, I was also involved in IT projects and startups.

I gradually moved from project planning into the wider project management domain by helping project managers and companies improve their project, program, and portfolio management systems.

Nowadays, I’m spending most of my time developing eLearning courses in our small company, Management Plaza (, and contributing to standards:

  • PMBOK® Guide 7th edition - Core development team member
  • - Core development team member
  • NUPP - Core development team member
  • PRINCE2® 6th edition - Reviewer
  • PRINCE2 Agile® - Reviewer
  • MSP® - Reviewer
  • Etc.

You can find out more about me here: or gemini://


Everything you read in this book is my personal opinion rather than that of PMI or the core development team of the PMBOK Guide. In fact, I’m sure at least some of them would disagree with some of the content in this book!

After all, if no one disagrees with you, you’ve probably not said anything useful.

IP Statements

This book mentions multiple resources besides the PMBOK Guide. Of these, PM²,,, Scrum, and NUPP are open, non-proprietary resources, while the others are proprietary ones protected by copyright. The following are their IP statements:

  • PMI and PMBOK are registered marks of The Project Management Institute, Inc.
  •,, and NUPP are marks of PTCoE.
  • PM² is a mark of the European Commission.
  • PRINCE2® is a registered mark of AXELOS Limited. All rights reserved.
  • DSDM® is a registered mark of Agile Business Consortium Limited. All rights reserved.
  • IPMA and IPMA ICB are registered marks of the International Project Management Association. All rights reserved.
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